Element 4: Systems: 

The original Westbrook Model describes systems as "Management Systems." The Westbrook Stevens Drivers of Change Model defines systems as every system and systems concept related to the business or organization.  

Symbolically systems are represented by the arrows crossing over each of the other elements and entering the house-like structure. As in a house, the internal environment is affected by the air conditioning, communication, and plumbing systems, so in an organization one could view systems as those management programs, policies, procedures and tools used by the organization to affect the internal environment.

  1. Management Systems: These are the systems or programs that can be used as or act as tools for changing the internal environment. Any other processes, aside from of management systems, would be included in the internal environment. We could define examples of Management Systems as follows: 
  • Management by Objectives (MBO); 
  • Statistical Quality Control (SQC) programs;
  • Total Quality Management (TQM);
  • Quality Functional Deployment (QFD), etc.; 
  • Just In Time (JIT);
  • Plan Do Check Act (PDCA) Programs; and 
  • Structured Team Approaches like Concurrent Engineering 
  1. Every Other System: The systems element covers everything that a company has as a system or does as a process.  
  • Computer Systems
  • Maintenance Systems
  • Financial Systems
  • Reporting Systems
  • Quality Systems
  • Equipment Systems
  • Facility Systems